Its Time to Take End User Security Awareness Training Seriously

It is no longer a secret that the greatest vulnerability within any organization does not exist among the potential weaknesses within their company servers. No. The primary threat to any organization, anywhere, is the end user. A common misconception is that only large, public facing organizations can fall victim to data breaches. Although the largest names do indeed seem to get the most public shaming when their end users cause an attack, see internet governance organization ICANN and the spearphishing attack that they fell victim to in December of 2014. But, this is simply not the case anylonger. Any company of any size can fall prey to malware attacks, data breaches from email or url spoofing, or even social media attacks. In fact, very commonly, smaller organizations are also more likely to become victim to small ransomware attacks.

Preparing your company or organization with end user security awareness training is critical. Whats more, end user security training is readily available, easy to set up and more importantly, relatively inexpensive. For example, Cybrary’s end user security awareness training is set to be priced based on teh number of users within the organization, and sometimes that pricing can be as low as just a few dollars per user. So a company with 100 or less employees does not need to purchase a course that would have previously set them back several thousands of dollars. Instead, a small investment of a few dollars per user, annually, can help them to train and empower their employees and ultimately stabilize that primary threat. Wouldn’t you feel more comfortable knowing that your employees know what to look for in a spoofing attack, or that they know protocol on a potential social engineering target?

Security awareness training not only effects an organization, in making them stronger, but it also helps the individuals who take the training in their homes. As people acquire the knowledge of what to do, and not to do online and with spoofing and malware attacks, they learn to protect themselves at home. It may be surprising, but people still do get tricked into clicking on things that they shouldn’t. People do get tricked by pop-up malware telling them that their computer has been infected, and to call a number. People still do get tricked to provide password, bank account or personally identifiable information by spoofed URL’s and emails. By putting your staff through security awareness training, you are helping to empower them to be prepared for the everyday threats that they not only face at work, but also at home. This, then allows them to provide the members of their family with the same capabilities to avoid these threats.

So ultimately, its time for EVERY organization, of every size to empower their employees and make end user security awareness training a priority!

A Possible Revolution in IT and Cyber Security is on the Horizon – Update 12/19/14

It appears as though something is getting ready to happen, something pretty major. I can’t quite figure out the true nature of what these guys are up to, but clearly they are pretty sick and tired of something(or things) being restricted from a some of the population, based on lack of affordability.

We came across these guys ( on Twitter. On that account and their Facebook page, they talk about a mission that involves freeing IT and Cyber Security and making it completely accessible to the world and the people that it has been held back from all these years.

Apparently the launch is in January 2015 (as if their social media profiles didnt make that clear enough. Here is their Facebook page:

I guess we will have to wait until January to find out what this is all about. What I do know is that free or open source has helped make this industry what it is today. In the past, open source platforms such as Linux and Snort have put a huge dent in their respective paths of this field. Needless to say, open source is always welcome and usually very well received.

Update 12/19/14:
We found out that Cybrary is the name of website. They will be offering free IT and Cyber Security training, including various levels of hacking training. The entry level ethical hacking up to advanced hacking. Pretty cool!

The Growth of Cybercrime

The news these days is often filled with reports of cybercrime. Data breaches seem to occur every week, as major corporations constantly report about hackers stealing customer data. Most recently, Home Depot went under siege as it was reported that the debit and credit card information of estimated 56 million customers had been compromised by POS malware.

With major corporations having access to advanced technology, how do crimes like this manage to escape advanced security software systems? Many times, its human error: phishing, social engineering and software flaws that have gone overlooked have all been blamed for data breach. And human error, along with other forms of malware, is costly—U.S. officials have confirmed that over $445 billion has been lost in 2014 as a result of data breach, and there is no sign that the frequency or probability of this crime will lessen. The focus now then, is retaining talent that can help solve the issues surrounding this subset of criminal activity. But are those sort of individuals easy to come by?

Identified formally as Computer Hacking Forensic Investigators, these individuals study the ins and outs of computer forensics, a form of forensics in which digital evidence is used to solve crimes that occur using computers. The process includes identifying potential illegal activity then providing the applicable legal evidence that a crime has been committed. These specialized criminal investigators are not widely prevalent in the job market—but it’s that fact that makes them extremely desirable to employers.

Becoming a computer hacking forensic investigator doesn’t take years and years of secondary schooling—a simple week of intense, boot-camp training is sufficient for an aspiring cyber-sleuth. CHFI training educates students on how to create sterile examination media, how to legally gain access to classified data, and how to recover “deleted” data for use as evidence.

If today’s prevalent news topics on cybercrime, are any indication of what’s to come in the future, computer hacking forensics investigators will be in demand for a long time to come.

Hunting Cyber Threats with Data – A Free Webinar

Check out the upcoming free webinar in late February on hunting cyber threats with big data. Obviously, the use of data for cyber security is quickly emerging. Cyber professionals need to be equipped with a baseline knowledge on how to handle these emerging skills and how to apply them to your environment.

The webinar will be held on 2/26 from 1-2pm. You can register for free here: Hunting Cyber Threats with Data

All About Process Injection

If you’ve ever been the victim of malware infection, chances are that you and your devices were duped by process injection. One of the most popular techniques used by hackers, process injection conceals malicious code to bypass firewalls and process-specific security mechanisms to launch damaging malware onto your devices. The bad guys inject code into another running process, and that process executes the hidden malicious code. Process injection is particularly dangerous because unlike other malware infections, victims have no way to potentially identify the threat—there is no suspicious clickable banner or pop-up—just concealed code.  Because this technique is so prevalent in the hacker community, experts have uploaded demo videos on process injection so that people can understand the intricate methodology behind it.

Process injection can exist in a variety of forms. DLL injection and direct injection are two different types of process injection that involve alternative techniques to load malicious code into a process. DLL injection, or dynamic-link library injection, occurs when a malware author injects code into a remote process, causing a DLL to be loaded. The DLL, which contains malicious code, then infects the system and grants the author access to the system. Similar to DLL injection, direct injection involves allocating and inserting code into a remote process’ memory space to distribute malicious code. However, direct injection malware injects the malicious code directly into the remote process rather than requiring the remote process to load it. Direct injection, while more flexible than DLL injection, requires a significant amount of customized code in order to run without affecting the host process negatively.

Though process injection has been around for decades, it remains of the top techniques employed by those in the hacker community.

Secure Coding for Maximum Trust

Secure coding is the aspect of application development dedicated to hardening the application (as opposed to the network, operating system or database) against malicious penetration. Unfortunately, secure coding is rarely taught in college or professional classes as an integral part of the development process. Gartner analysis concluded that 90% of all vulnerabilities are now in the application layer. Secure coding standards and practices are more important than ever, as shown by the US Department of Homeland Security’s efforts to sponsor secure development.

Knowledge is Power

First, programmers must learn the vulnerabilities in their programming language and the techniques to avoid them. For example, a program in a language with buffer overflow vulnerabilities should always have server-side bounds checking on input values to ensure hackers cannot penetrate the system with bad data input. CERT, the computer security program of Carnegie Mellon’s Software Engineering Institute, keeps a public database of such vulnerabilities. The Department of Homeland Security developed a program devoted to avoiding the 25 most commonly exploited weaknesses. MITRE’s Common Weakness Enumeration (CWE) list is exhaustive. Programmers must use these resources to understand their language’s weaknesses and how to compensate with good coding.

Several organizations devoted to IT security developed security-focused training classes for developers. Companies like SANS and TrainACE offer hands-on secure coding training courses that are designed for no specific language, they encompass overall best practices. CERT has a course for secure coding for C and C++ developers. (ISC)2 grants the CSLLP (Certified Secure Software Lifecycle Professional) certification and lays out a road map of required knowledge and experience to qualify. Programmers lacking time or money for classes have a variety of online resources available to them, from the CERT vulnerability database and security wiki to a variety of how-to white papers from the SANS Institute InfoSec reading room.

Trust but Verify

Second, organizations must check code for common vulnerabilities before releasing it into production. Vulnerabilities are not easily picked out by the untrained eye, so it is important for organizations to dedicate some resources to this part of the process, in training or tools or, preferably, both.

Process Matters

Third, implement good SDLC practices. Fixes are still made in test and not promoted into production, or made in production and overlaid with back-level code not containing the patch. The SCLC process was specifically created to prevent careless and amateurish mistakes of this kind, and it is important for system security and reliability that processes be followed, preferably using enabling tools instead of relying on tedious manual effort.

Test to Destruction

Finally, critical applications should periodically be audited and tested by a third party. Penetration testers are professionals experienced at breaking into systems to discover vulnerabilities, not for malicious reasons. Hire penetration testers only after the application development is complete and all the in-house security reviews, audits, and tests are finished, so testers see the product just as a malicious hacker would.

Ignoring application security is a recipe for disaster. Fortunately, secure coding is growing as a practice and discipline, as is awareness of its importance. Organizations who recognize this and act on it will benefit in the long run with increased client trust and reduced liability.

Startling Government Phone Alerts: Too Invasive or A Necessary Precaution?

For some cell phone users, the first time that they found out about the government’s new alert system was when James Lee DiMaggio kidnapped 16-year-old Hannah Anderson. The alert system startled many California residents.

About the Wireless Emergency Alert System
The Wireless Emergency Alert, or WEA, system is a division of the government’s public safety network. It was launched in April of 2012, and since its introduction, carriers have been implementing the program to different phones and regions throughout the country. When an emergency occurs, the system will automatically alert the owners of certain wireless phones. The system also notifies people who have other types of mobile devices such as tablets.

How Does the Government Alert System Work?
Once state or local governments become preauthorized, they can deliver emergency alerts to people in their area. For instance, local officials can send out orders to evacuate a location. They can also notify residents about a terrorist threat. Officials contact the Federal Emergency Management Agency, or FEMA, to issue the alert through the Integrated Public Alert and Warning System, which has connections to participating wireless carriers. Wireless providers then send the alerts through cell towers to mobile devices in the region. When wireless device users see the message, it will display like a text. The notifications are different from the Short Message Service, or SMS, as they are not delayed by network traffic. However, the SMS system is less intrusive.

Alert Types
The government is using the WEA system to notify citizens of disasters like floods, toxic spills or fires. In addition, officials use the network to send out Amber Alerts, but they only use it for the most ominous child abduction incidents. According to the director of the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, Amber Alerts have assisted in the safe return of 656 abducted children throughout the country. However, for the alerts to be effective, people must see or hear them.

What is the Public’s Opinion of the Alert System?
After California sent out the alert for Hannah Anderson, many people were annoyed. They reported that the messaging system was noisy and intrusive. They also claimed that the text left their messaging screen too quickly for them to assess the situation and that the alert repeated the message too many times. Some people are threatening to remove their phone from the alert, but California officials are asking them not to because the rescue of the 16-year-old proves the successfulness of the program.

This fall, California’s local government will be assessing the alert system to confirm that it is working properly. In addition, they may make a few minor changes to address consumer complaints. They also intend to create a support campaign for the program to highlight its benefits.

Improving the System
The government could make the program better by emitting different tones for different kinds of alerts. Furthermore, most people would appreciate an update on an emergency situation. The system could be more precise and narrow the messages down to neighborhoods or even a building. In addition, a referral website with detailed information would be helpful. It will be unfortunate if people choose to opt out of the alerts because when more eyes search for kidnapped victims, rescues are more likely to happen.


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